Кто был «Адамом» в Европе?

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«Адамом» в ЕвропеПреемственность населения в областях между Карпатами, Дунаем и Черным морем с древнейших времен по наши дни подтверждают тесты ДНК. В этом контексте наиболее показательными являются исследования Y-хромосомы, которая определяет пол человека и передается только по мужской линии, от отца сыну. Мальчики получают от своих отцов Y-хромосому, а от матерей — митохондриальную ДНК, тогда как девочкам достается лишь мамина митохондриальная ДНК. Соответственно, изучение Y-хромосомы позволило выяснить, от скольких «Адамов» произошла человеческая раса.

Население Европы ведет свой род от шести Адамов, которые проникли на континент в следующем хронологическом порядке: Адам I, Адам J, Адам R1a, Адам R1b, Адам E3b, Адам N.

По данным популяционной генетики человека, гаплогруппа I (потомки Адама I) – самая древняя гаплогруппа в Европе, причем это единственная большая группа, сформировавшаяся на этом континенте. Эта гаплогруппа зародилась 20-25 тысяч лет назад на Балканском полуострове, хотя ее истоки лежат в гораздо более раннем периоде – примерно 35 тысяч лет назад. С отступлением ледникового максимума гаплогруппа I распространилась от Балкан до Северной Европы.

Имеющиеся данные указывают на то, что Homo sapiens sapiens (кроманьонец) полностью принадлежал гаплогруппе I. Носители этой группы являются создателями мегалитических построек в Западной Европе и, совместно с носителями гаплогруппы R1a - первой европейской цивилизации, Кукутень-трипольской культуры.

У гаплогруппы I есть две основные ветви: гаплогруппа I1 и гаплогруппа I2.

Гаплогруппа I2 - «балканская» гаплогруппа Y-хромосомы — происходит из юго-восточных областей Европы. Разделяется на две подгруппы: I2a (более всего распространена на Балканском полуострове и Сардинии) и I2b (северо-запад Европы).

Гаплогруппа I2a2 типична для населения Юго-Восточной Европы, наибольшая ее концентрация отмечена в двух центрах:

1. у жителей Боснии и Хорватии;

2. у жителей северо-востока Румынии, Республики Молдова, а также центральной и юго-западной части Украины.

Исследования генетиков показали, что в Европе степень генетической близости народов определяется главным образом географическим расположением, а не языком.

Например, молдаване, сербы, хорваты и боснийцы родственны друг другу, хотя говорят на языках разных семейств. Проведенные исследования также показали, что современное население Карпато-Дунайско-Черноморского региона практически не связано генетическим родством с жителями Апеннинского полуострова (итальянцами).

Более подробную информацию о генетических доводах в пользу преемственности населения Карпато-Дунайско-Черноморского пространства вы можете найти на нашем сайте.

«Адамом» в Европе

 

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