Пермакультура — это система дизайна для организации идеального пространства

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Пермакультура — это система дизайна для организации идеального пространства

Брюс Чарльз «Билл» Моллисон (англ. Bruce Charles 'Bill' Mollison; 4 мая 1928, Стэнли, Тасмания - 24 сентября 2016) — австралийский исследователь и натуралист.

Билл Моллисон родился в 1928 году в маленькой рыбацкой деревне Стэнли на Тасмании. Оставил школу в пятнадцать лет, чтобы помогать в семейной пекарне. Потом он стал выходить в море на небольшом судне и заниматься ловлей акул; до 1954 года Билл Моллисон освоил множество ремёсел: он был лесником, мельником, охотником, натуралистом.

Практическая иллюстрация книги Билла Моллисона на русском языке (Видео)
Практическая иллюстрация книги Билла Моллисона на русском языке (Видео)

Билл вступил в CSIRO (Секция по наблюдению за дикой природой) в 1954 году и в течение следующих девяти лет работал биологом в самых отдалённых уголках Австралии. После того как Билл получил диплом по специальности биогеография, его направили в Тасманийский университет.

В 1972 году произошла судьбоносная встреча с Дэвидом Холмгреном, который был студентом Моллисона. Их обоих объединил большой интерес к взаимоотношениям между человеком и естественными системами. Из их общения и совместных садовых экспериментов родилась идея «перманентной агрокультуры», или «пермакультуры», которая генетически связана с идеями различных исследователей 20-го века.

Как Моллисон сам определяет это понятие, пермакультура — это «система дизайна, цель которого состоит в организации пространства, занимаемого людьми, на основе экологически целесообразных моделей». При этом его разработки касаются не только выращивания пищи, но строений и инфраструктуры, а также всех компонентов окружающего мира.

Создать изобилие с ограниченным бюджетом на вашем участке легко! (Видео)
Создать изобилие с ограниченным бюджетом на вашем участке легко! (Видео)

Как считает английская писательница Эмма Чепман о современном состоянии пермакультуры: «Фактически сейчас это превратилось в целую дизайн-философию, а для некоторых людей в философию жизни вообще. Её центральной темой является создание систем, которые обеспечивают человеческие нужды, используя множество натуральных компонентов и черпая вдохновение у природных экосфер».

Оставив университет в 1978 году, Билл всю свою энергию посвятил усовершенствованию системы пермакультуры и распространению её идей и принципов по всему миру. Он обучал тысячи студентов и участвовал в создании множества статей, учебных курсов и рекомендаций для проектов строительства ферм, реорганизации больших городов и местных органов самоуправления.

Билл Моллисон является исполнительным директором Института Пермакультуры (находится в Новом Южном Уэльсе, Австралия), который был основан в 1979 году для обучения студентов всего мира практическому дизайну.

 

Источник: Интернет-журнал "Совершенствуй среду обитания"

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